Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in
the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that it is not under
consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all coauthors, if
any, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institute where the work has been carried out;
that, if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic
transfer of the copyright to the publisher; that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in
any language without the consent of the copyright holders; that written permission of the copyright
holder is obtained by the authors for material used from other copyrighted sources; and that any
costs associated with obtaining this permission are the authors' responsibility.
Authors are strongly encouraged to submit manuscripts online. This will allow even quicker and more
efficient processing of your manuscript.
Manuscripts should be typewritten or prepared on a word processor, with all material double-spaced,
on one side of letter-sized paper, with suitably wide margins. All pages should be numbered
consecutively, beginning with page 1, the title page. Tables and figures should be numbered
serially, and legends to illustrations should be prepared on separate sheets. Tables and figures
will be placed near their first mention in the text; all tables and figures must be referred to in
Title Page: The following elements must be included:
- Title of the article
- Name(s) and initial(s) of author(s), preferably with first names spelled out
- Affiliation(s) of author(s)
- Footnotes to the contribution title
- Name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the corresponding author
Abstract: Each article is to be preceded by a succinct abstract, of up to 250 words, that highlights
the objectives, methods, results, and conclusions of the paper.
Key Words: To identify the subjects under which the article may be indexed, 6-10 key words should be
References: In the text, references to the literature should be by author and year; where there are
two authors, both should be named; with three or more only the first author's name plus "et al."
need be given. The list at the end of the paper should include only works mentioned in the text and
should be arranged alphabetically by name of first author. References should be cited as
- Journal papers -- name(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, full title, name of
the journal as abbreviated in Chemical Abstracts, volume number, first and last page
Quiring R, Walldorf U, Koter U, Gehring WJ (1994) Homology of the eyeless gene
of Drosophila to the small eye gene in mice and aniridia in humans. Science 265:785
- Books -- name(s) of author(s), year in brackets, full title, edition, publishers, place of
publication, page number:
Maizels N, Weiner AM (1993) The genomic tag hypothesis: modern
viruses as fossils of ancient strategies for genomic replication. In: Gesteland RF, Atkins
JF (eds) The RNA world. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, pp. 577 -- 602
Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic references rests entirely with the author, who is
requested to use as few "in press" citations as possible. In press citations must include the name
of the journal that has accepted the paper.
Footnotes: Those in the text should be numbered consecutively. Footnotes to the title or authors of
the article are marked by asterisks and placed on the title page.
Sequences: Sequences that are used merely as data points in statistical calculations or graphs
should, if possible, be referred to by their accession numbers only. Authors should be quoted by
name when their sequences are discussed individually or presented in alignments.
Illustrations: These should be suitable for reproduction, and should clarify or shorten the text.
Information provided in figure legends should not be repeated in the text. Figures and graphs should
always be mentioned in the text and numbered with Arabic numerals. Preferred file formats include
.tif and .jpg; please see Manuscript Central for more details.
Color Figures: Color can be used without charge for the electronic edition of the journal but will
appear in the printed version of the journal at the author's expense: $1150.00 per article.
Computer Software: Any software referred to among methods used must be obtainable either
commercially or upon request from the authors. In submitting a manuscript to the Journal, authors
accept the obligation to furnish upon request any information necessary for reproducing the
methodologies on which their results are based. The methods used for preparing and analyzing
alignments must be stated precisely.
Mathematical Equations: These should be clearly prepared, and annotated if necessary. Primes and
dots must be called to the attention of the typesetter. Differentiate legibly between number 1,
capital letter I, and lower case letter l. Use fractional exponents instead of root signs and the
solidus (/) for fractions wherever their use will save vertical space. Use exp () notation when the
exponent is sizable. All equations must be numbered sequentially, on the right-hand side of the
column, in parenthetic Arabic numerals.
Organisms: Must be identified by their scientific binomen.
Homology: The term should not be used in the sense of structural similarity but only in its
biological sense of derivation of structures from a common ancestral structure.
Abbreviations, Symbols, Units, etc.: Acronyms and symbols must be defined at first mention, in
titles, abstracts, as well as within the text. For nomenclature, abbreviations, symbols, and units,
authors should follow internationally accepted rules, including those adopted by the Commission on
Submitted manuscripts must not have been published previously nor be under consideration for
publication elsewhere. Moreover submission to the journal will be deemed to imply that the
manuscript will not be submitted elsewhere if accepted. Publication of paper in the journal
automatically transfers the copyrights from the authors to the publishers.
Please note that all papers accepted for this journal are subject to originality checking. To avoid
potential problems, please ensure that all citations and sources are fully disclosed at the point of
submission. A guide to citations can be viewed here.
The language of the manuscript should be English only.
Authors must retain a copy of every contribution, as these will not be sent along with the proofs to
be corrected by the authors.
For general guidance on every stage of the publication process, please visit Author Services website.
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